Bivek Timalsina's Profile
Level 1



​​Bivek Timalsina Lecturer, Nobel College (Pokhara University), Nepal ​M.Sc. Biotechnology; B.Sc. Medical Microbiology ​iBiology Ambassador for Nepal, 2015. Global Outreach Member, ASM 2015. I am Interested in Infectious diseases for diagnosis and novel treatment.
  • Level 1 Asked on November 29, 2015 in Bacteriology.

    Siderophores are specialized molecules secreted to bind ferric ion (Fe3+) and transport it into the cell.
    The iron is released into the cytoplasm and reduced to the more useful ferrous (Fe2+) form.
    Siderophores are amongst the strongest soluble Fe3+ binding agents known.  These are elaborated by bacteria and fungi growing under low iron stress.  These are common products of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and of fungi.

    Note: Neisseria gonorrhoeae employs receptors on its surface that bind human iron complexes and wrest the iron from them.

    RE: what is the siderophore?

    Bivek Timalsina
    Lecturer, Pokhara University, Nepal

    • 3 answers
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  • Level 1 Asked on November 1, 2015 in Virology.

    Dear Gaurab and Bikash,

    Thank you for the very specific comment. I agree to your points.

    I believe that, what makes HIV-1 infection unique is that the virus cannot be completely eradicated by the immune system, though persisting in the body, eventually increasing viral loads, and thus developing AIDS. Even more interesting fact it that, HIV shows the high genetic variability because of the high mutation and recombination rated of the reverse transcriptase enzyme with high rate of virus replication. This means there are many different strains of HIV, even within the body of a single infected person resulting in the generation of various types, groups and subtypes during the course of evolution (Frost et al., 2005; Paul M Sharp & Hann, 2011).

    Still looking for the answer of rise of CD4+T cell even after temporary fall in their count..

    Thank you.

    • 3 answers
    • 1 votes
  • Level 1 Asked on October 29, 2015 in Virology.

    Answer: C (HIV RT PCR)
    All test mentioned in options can be useful in determining the HIV viral infection, pathogenicity, host response.
    The most useful among them especially in determining the chances of progression to symptomatic AIDS is RT PCR.
    This is due to the advancement of technique which directly measure the viral RNA present in the blood plasma. Therefore the viral load present in the blood can be measured in terms of viral load or viral titer or viral burden and generally for HIV, a viral load of more than 750,000 copies per ml blood plasma significantly increase the chances of progression to AIDS within 5 years.

    HIV RT PCR is a nucleic acid amplification test for HIV RNA in which Viral RNA is first isolated from the blood plasma and then converted into cDNA using an enzyme termed reverse transcriptase. The reverse transcriptase allows a single strand of RNA to be translated into a complementary strand of DNA. Once that reaction occurs, the routine PCR method can then be used to amplify the DNA.
    Thank you.
    Bivek Timalsina
    Lecturer, Pokhara University

    • 4 answers
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  • Level 1 Asked on October 26, 2015 in Basic Microbiology.

    It’s hard to say which one is more dangerous (harmful) between bacteria and viruses in general term.  Both can be useful and harmful to human, animal and plants depending on their association and adherence, virulence properties and host susceptibility and permeability. 

    Small could be more beautiful and more harmful as well. We are living in sea of viruses and even our genome comprises 8% of viral genome. Still, there are only few viruses known to cause the dreadful diseases. Thanks to our immune response to these foreign entity. Their small size, easy spread and fast replication makes them highly dangerous but these are also the most fragile living things in comparison to bacteria. Some bacteria can resist harsh environment and chemicals. They have the rigid cell wall made of thick layer as their protection and can go for dormancy covering in capsule. 

    In taking all these, I think the danger depends of their virulence factors. 

    Bivek Timalsina
    Lecturer, Pokhara University

    This answer accepted by Sagar Aryal. on October 27, 2015 Earned 5 points.

    • 10 answers
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